The Scottish Health Survey: Topic Report: Obesity

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Notes and References

[1] Finucane, Marial M; Gretchen A Stevens; Melanie J Cowan et al. 2011. National, regional and global trends in body-mass index since 1980: systematic analysis of health examination surveys and epidemiological studies with 960 country-years and 9.1 million participants. Lancet 2011: Vo;. 377 Issue 9765, Pages 557 - 567

[2] WHO: Obesity and Overweight. Fact Sheet No. 311. http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs311/en/index.html accessed 15.08.11

[3] WHO, 2000. Obesity: Preventing and Managing the Global Epidemic. WHO:Geneva

[4] Foresight (2008). Tackling Obesities: Future Choices - Project Report (2nd edition). London:Government Office for Science.

[5] WHO, 2009. Global Health Risks: Mortality and Burden of Disease attributable to selected major risks. WHO: Geneva.

[6] Based on figures from WHO Global Health Observatory, http://www.who.int/gho/database/en/, accessed 26/08/11

[7] As calculated for the report 'Preventing Overweight and Obesity in Scotland. A Route Map towards healthy weight'. The Scottish Government, Edinburgh 2010. Based on the assumption that Scotland follows US trends with a 10-15 year lag.

[8] Bromley, Catherine et al. 2011. The Scottish Health Survey 2010, Vol. 1: Main report. The Scottish Executive

[9] Grant, I., Fischbacher, C., and Whyte, B. (2007). Obesity in Scotland - An epidemiology briefing. Edinburgh: NHS National Services Scotland/Scottish Public Health Observatory. [online] Available from: < www.scotpho.org.uk/home/Publications/scotphoreports/pub_obesityinscotland.asp>

[10] Scottish Budget Spending Review 2007, Edinburgh: Scottish Government, 2007. [online] Available from: < www.scotland.gov.uk/Publications/2007/11/13092240/0> See also: < www.scotlandperforms.com>

[11] Healthy Eating, Active Living: An action plan to improve diet, increase physical activity and tackle obesity (2008-2011), Edinburgh: Scottish Government, 2008

[12] See: < www.keepwellscotland.com> and < www.healthscotland.com/Prevention-2010.aspx>

[13] Preventing Overweight and Obesity in Scotland: A Route Map towards Healthy Weight. 2010. Scottish Executive. http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Publications/2010/02/17140721/0

[14] Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network. Management of obesity. A national clinical guideline. SIGN guideline no. 115. Edinburgh: SIGN, 2010.

[15] Health Analytical Services Scottish Government and Information and Statistics Division, NHS National Services Scotland. Indicators to Monitor Progress of the Obesity Route Map. Edinburgh: Scottish Government, 2011 < www.scotland.gov.uk/Resource/Doc/346011/0115167.pdf>

[16] Waist circumference and waist-hip ratio: Report of a WHO Expert Consultation., Geneva, 8-11 December 2008. 2011. Geneva: WHO.

[17] Prospective Studies Collaboration. Body-mass index and cause-specific mortality in 900,000 adults: collaborative analyses of 57 prospective studies. Lancet 2009: 373: 1083-96

[18] Huxley, R, S Mendis; E Zheleznyakov; S Reddy and J Chan. Body mass index, waist circumference and waist:hip ratio as predictors of cardiovascular risk - a review of the literature. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition (2010) 64 16-22

[19] Romero-Corral A, Somers VK, Sierra-Johnson J, Thomas RJ, Collazon-Clavell ML, Korinek J et al. Accuracy of body mass index in diagnosing obesity in the adult general population. Int J Obesity 2008; 32: 959-996.

[20] Snijder, MB, van Damm, RM, Visser, M, Seidell, JC. 2006. What aspects of body fat are particularly hazardous and how do we measure them? International Journal of Epidemiology 2006: 35: 83-92

[21] National Institute of Health and Clinical Excellence (2006). CG43 Obesity: full guideline, section 2: Identification and Classification. [online] Available from: < www.nice.org.uk/guidance/index.jsp?action=download&o=38295>

[22] WHO Expert Consultation, 2004. Appropriate Body Mass Index for Asian populations and its implications for policy and intervention strategies. Lancet, Vol. 363. 157-63.

[23] National Obesity Observatory. Measures of central adiposity as an indicator of obesity. August 2009. http://www.noo.org.uk/NOO_about_obesity/measurement

[24] Han, TS et al. 1995. Waist circumference action levels in the identification of cardiovascular risk factors: prevalence study in a random sample. BMJ. 311(7017): 1401-1405

[25] Janssen, I, Peter T Katzmarzyk & Robert Ross. Waist Circumference and not body mass index explains obesity-related health risk. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2004: 79: 379-84.

[26] Han, TS, Sattar, Naveed, Lean, M. 2006. ABC of Obesity: Assessment of Obesity and its clinical applications. BMJ Volume 333.

[27] Pischon et al. 2008. General and Abdominal adiposity and risk of death in Europe. New England Journal of Medicine. 359:20.

[28] Seidell, JC. Waist circumference and waist/hip ratio in relation to all-cause mortality, cancer and sleep apnea. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 64 35-41.

[29] Schulze, M, et al. 2006. Comparison of anthropometric characteristics in predicting the incidence of type 2 diabetes in the EPIC-Potsdam Study. Diabetes Care: 2006 29 (8) 1921-1923.

[30] J Stevens, EG Katz & RR Huxley, 2010. Associations between gender, age and waist circumference. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition. (2010) 64 6-15.

[31] Heim, N et al. 2010. Exploring cut-off values for large waist circumference in older adults: A new methodological approach. The Journal of Nutrition, Health & Ageing. 14(4).

[32] Akbartabartoori, M et al. 2005. Relationships between cigarette smoking, body size, and body shape. International Journal of Obesity. 29 236-243.

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[34] Han, TH, FCH Bijnen, MEJ Lean & JC Seidell. 1998. Separate associations of waist and hip circumference with lifestyle factors. International Journal of Epidemiology. 27:422- 430.

[35] Lean, MEJ, TS Han & CE Morrison. 1995. Waist Circumference as a measure for indicating need for weight management. BMJ 311: 158.

[36] Bromley, Catherine et al. 2010. The Scottish Health Survey 2009, Vol. 1: Main report. The Scottish Executive.

[37] For men, there is no clear consensus over what the cutoff should be. The latest WHO report recommends WHR >0.90; NICE recommend >1.00.

[38] Lissner, L, Björkelund C, Heitmann BL; Seidell JC, Bengtsson C. Larger hip circumference independently predicts health and longevity in a Swedish female cohort. Obesity Research 2001: 9: 644-6.

[39] Gill M Price, Ricardo Uauy, Elizabeth Breeze, Christopher J Bulpitt, and Astrid E Fletcher. 2006. Weight, shape, and mortality risk in older persons: elevated waist-hip ratio, not high body mass index, is associated with a greater risk of death. Am J Clin Nutr 2006;84:449-60.

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[42] C. Czernichow, A. P. Kengne, E Stamatakis, M. Hamer & G. D. Batty. Body-mass index, waist circumference and waist-hip ratio: which is the better discriminator of cardiovascular disease mortality risk? Evidence from an individual participant meta-analysis of 82,864 participants from nine cohort studies. Obesity Reviews. (2011) 12: 680-687

[43] J. C Seidell, T. S Han, E. J. M. Feskens, & M. E. J. Lean. 1997. Narrow hips and broad waist circumference independently contribute to increased risk of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Journal of Internal Medicine. Volume 242, Issue 5, pages 401-406.

[44] Janssen, Ian, Peter T. Katzmarzyk & Robert Ross. 2002. Body Mass Index, Waist Circumference and Health Risk: Evidence in Support of Current National Institutes of Health Guidelines.

[45] This not specified in SIGN guideline ( no column for those with normal WC) but added in 2009 annual report

[46] This not in original SIGN guideline, but was added in 2009 annual report.

[47] Margaret Ashwell and Shiun Dong Hsieh. Six reasons why the waist-to-height ratio is a rapid and effective global indicator for health risks of obesity and how its use could simplify the international public health message on obesity. 2005, Vol. 56, No. 5 , Pages 303-307

[48] Harald J. Schneider, Heide Glaesmer, Jens Klotsche et al. Accuracy of Anthropometric Indicators of Obesity to Predict Cardiovascular Risk. JCEM 2007 92: 589-594.

[49] S D Hsieh, H Yoshinaga and T Muto. Waist-to-height ratio, a simple and practical index for assessing central fat distribution and metabolic risk in Japanese men and women. International Journal of Obesity (2003) 27, 610-616

[50] Bromley, Catherine et al (eds), 2009. The Scottish Health Survey 2008. Volume 2, Technical report. Edinburgh:The Scottish Government.

[51] Bromley, Catherine et al (eds), 2010. The Scottish Health Survey 2009. Volume 2, Technical report. Edinburgh:The Scottish Government.

[52] Bromley, Catherine et al (eds), 2011. The Scottish Health Survey 2010. Volume 2, Technical report. Edinburgh:The Scottish Government.

[53] See appendix B for a complete explanation of this statistic.

[54] See appendix D for fuller explanation of method.

[55] Bromley, Catherine et al. 2005. The Scottish Health Survey 2003, Vol. 2: Adults. The Scottish Executive.

[56] Estimating Prevalence of Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes in a Population of African Americans with Diabetes Mellitus, 1999, James P. Boyle et al , American Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 149, No. 1

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[58] Scottish Public Health Observatory. Scottish Diabetes Survey 2009. NHS Scotland. Available here: http://www.diabetesinscotland.org.uk/Publications.aspx?catId=3

[59] Bromley, Catherine et al (eds), 2010. The Scottish Health Survey 2009. Volume 1, Final report. Edinburgh:The Scottish Government.

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[61] Hotchkiss, JW & Leyalnd, AH. 2011. The relationship between body size and mortality in the linked Scottish Health Surveys: cross-sectional surveys with follow-up. International Journal of Obesity (2011) 35, 838-851.

[62] De Koning, L, Anwar T. Merchant, Janice Pogue, & Sonia S. Anand. 2007. Waist circumference and waist-to-hip ratio as predictors of cardiovascular events: meta-regression analysis of prospective studies. European Heart Journal. 28, 850-856.

[63] Lee CM, Huxley RR, Wildman RP, Woodward M, 2008. Indices of abdominal obesity are better discriminators of cardiovascular risk factors than BMI: a meta-analysis. J Clin Epidemiol 61, 646-653

[64] Gabriela Vazquez, Sue Duval, David R. Jacobs, Jr, Karri Silventoinen. 2007. Comparison of Body Mass Index, Waist Circumference, and Waist/Hip Ratio in Predicting Incident Diabetes: A Meta-Analysis. Epidemiologic Reviews. Vol. 29, 2007

[65] A Esmaillzadeh, P Mirmiran and F Azizi . Waist-to-hip ratio is a better screening measure for cardiovascular risk factors than other anthropometric indicators in Tehranian adult men. International Journal of Obesity (2004) 28, 1325-1332

[66] From 2012 the waist circumference measurement will be taken by the interviewer. However, it will still only be measured on a sub-sample of respondents.

[67] Egger, Gary ; Boyd Swinburn. 1997. An 'ecological' approach to the obesity pandemic. BMJ 315: 477

[68] Boyd A Swinburn, Gary Sacks, Kevin A Hall et al. The Global Obesity Pandemic: shaped by global drivers and local environments. Lancet 2011: 378: 804-14.

[69] Scarborough, P et al. 2011. Increased energy intake entirely accounts for increase in body weight in women but not men in the UK between 1986 and 2000. British Journal of Nutrition (2011), 105: 1399-1404.

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[73] Nielsen, Samara Joy; Anna Maria Siega-Riz; Barry M. Popkin. 2002. Trends in Energy Intake in U.S. between 1977 and 1996: Similar shifts seen across age groups. Obesity Research Vol. 10 No. 5 May 2002.

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[81] R W Jakes, et al. 2003. Television Viewing and low participation in vigorous recreation are independently associated with obesity and markers of cardiovascular disease risk: EPIC Norfolk population-based study. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 57 1089-1096.

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[86] Jane Wardle, Jo Waller, Martin J. Jarvis. 2002. Sex Differences in the Association of Socioeconomic Status with Obesity. American Journal of Public Health. 2002; 92 : 1299-1304.

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[96] Sobal, et al. 1992. Marital Status, fatness and obesity. Social Science & Medicine. Vol. 35, No. 7, pp 915-923.

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